Feb 10, 2011

United Nation's Organization


After the First World War, to save the nations from the scourge of future wars, League of Nations was established. But it failed. It was for the same purpose, after the Second World War, United Nations Organization was established. The leaders who took interest to establish this world organization were the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Stalin of Russia, and the President of U.S.A., F.D. Roosewelt. These leaders had assembled in a conference at Yalta during 1945 and decided to start the U.N.O. Accordingly, on the 24th day of October 1945, the U.N.O. was
inaugurated with its headquarters in New York city. There were only 51 states who enrolled themselves as members of U.N.O., when it was started. India was one of them. Today there are about 191 nations who are the members of U.N.O. Any nation can enroll as a member of this world organization. India being a member has upheld the goals of the organization.

AIMS OF THE U.N.O. :
(1) To promote International peace and security.
(2) To promote friendly relations on the basis of equality among all the nations of world.
(3) To promote International co-operation among the people of the world to develop economic, social and cultural matters and finding solution to various international problems. To encourage securing of Human and Fundamental rights.

The main agencies of the U.N.O. are : (1) General Assembly, (2) Security
Council, (3) Economic and Social Council, (4) Trusteeship Council, (5) Secretariat, and (6) International Court of Justice.

1. GENERAL ASSEMBLY : The General Assembly is the general body of the U.N.O. consisting of all the members of U.N.O. Every member nation can send five representatives but each nation has a single vote. One can call the General Assembly as the parliament of the U.N.O. It is an important organization of the U.N.O. The general body meeting is called in the month of September every year. Emergency meetings of the Assembly may be summoned depending on the needs of the situation. This assembly has power to discuss all matters coming under its purview
and deliver its decisions. All decisions of importance are passed by 2/3 majority of members present at voting. Attendance of members depends on the subject discussed. The Assembly prepares the Annual Budget and approves it. It also decides the rate of contribution of each member state. The General Assembly carries out its function with the help of various committees. During last September 2000, the Millennium Conference of the Assembly was convened in New York City. One hundred and fifty nations of the world had taken part. Our Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajapey had participated in this summit. This summit gave call to fight against Terrorism in a concerted manner. We are proud to remember that Vijayalakshmi Pandit, sister of Jawaharlal Nehru, was elected as the President of the general assembly. She was the first woman president of the General Assembly of the U.N.O.

2. SECURITY COUNCIL : Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N.O. as its role is wide and it is expected to protect peace and security in the world. The Council consists of 15 members of which five are permanent members and the remaining ten are temporary members, who are elected by the General Assembly for a term of two years. Every member of the Council has a right to vote but permanent members have a right to veto, and when such veto is exercised, such a matter will not become a decision. England, America, Russia, France and China are the permanent members of the Security Council. Security Council has the power to admit or reject the membership of a new member to the General Assembly. The Council has power to suggest the name of the Secretary-General of the U.N.O. But the Secretary-General is elected by the General Assembly. Even in the election of the Judges of the International Court of Justice, it has its own role to play. In the recent past, there is a proposal to expand the permanent membership of the Council. Some nations of the world wanted to bring about some reforms in the U.N.O. In this direction, during the month of April 2000, U.S.A. brought certain proposals before the Council to raise the membership of the Security Council from 15 to 21 and to abolish the ‘Veto’ by providing equal votes to all the members of the Security Council. This was taken up for discussion in the General Assembly which was called during November 2000. Hundred and eight members had participated and it was suggested that India being a biggest democracy be made a member of the Council. India, as a non alienment nation had played an important
role as a member of U.N.O. It is because of this that a number of nations have suggested its name for the membership of the Security Council.

3. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL : Creation of conducive conditions for the progress through change in economic and social environment is the purpose of the Council. A Committee of 54 members of the U.N.O. is constituted for this purpose. These members are elected by the General Assembly. The term of a member is three years. Every year 1/3 members, i.e. 18 will retire. However a retired member is eligible for re-election. The Committee meets twice in a year. The aims of the Council are: (1) To assure better standard of life, employment opportunities to improve the economic and social standards of the society among the people of its member nations.
(2) To provide solutions to various international problems relating to health and social and economic matters.
(3) To encourage co-operation in the fields of culture and education.
(4) To promote respect for Human Rights throughout the world and create awareness about these rights.
(5) To provide fundamental rights to all the citizens irrespective of sex, race, religion and language. The Council can render advice on the above issues and organize programmes to promote them.

4. THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL : After the Second World War, a dispute arose about the distribution of imperial possessions belonging to the vanquished nations. In order to settle such disputes this Council was created. The objective of this Council is to help securing independence to such territories which were under foreign rule. To carry on the administration of such territories, a committee was constituted, after entering into a ‘trusteeship pact’ on following lines:
1. The number of such nations who were selected to be in charge to look
after the administration of such territories.
2. The permanent members of the Security Council.
3. Three elected members from the General Assembly for a term of three
years.
Most of such territories which were under trusteeship have now attained
independence.

5. THE SECRETARIAT AND THE SECRETARY GENERAL : The main administrativeoffice of the secretariat is at Lake success near New York. The Secretary-General is the chief of the Secretariat and his term of office is five years. He carries the administration on the instruction issued by the Permanent Members of the Security Council.

6. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE : The International Court of Justice is one of the principal organs of the U.N.O. It was created by an international treaty. All members of the U.N.O. are parties to the statute of the court. The court settles disputes among its member nations. It also gives advice to the different bodies of the United Nations. There are 15 judges and their term of office is nine years. The Security Council and the General Assembly elect these judges. Every year five judges retire and they are eligible for re-election. Such elected judges are prohibited from taking up any job or participate in any political activities. The judges of the International Court of Justice are prohibited from appearing before any court in the world and they are prohibited to represent any country. The judges of this court enjoy a number of privileges. We are proud of the fact that Nagendra Singh and Benagal Shiva Rao of India were the judges of the International Court of Justice.
The headquarters of this court is located in the city, the Hague of Holland.

VARIOUS AGENCIES OF THE U.N.O.1. FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION (F.A.O.) :
It was set up in 1945. The purpose of F.A.O. is to fight against poverty, malnutrition and hunger in the world. The Administrative office is in Rome. The main functions of this organization are :
1.To encourage the food production by promoting improved conditions of
cultivation in the world.
2.Encourage the consumption of nutritious food among the peoples.
3.To protect the natural resources and provide agricultural facilities.
4.Improving living conditions of the rural people.

2. THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (W.H.O.) :
It was set up in 1948 with the purpose of improving the physical and mental health of all. In this direction a number of programmes are taken under by this organisation. In the first place, mention may be made of the steps taken to fight against AIDS throughout the world. The fight against the epidemics like cholera, plague, malaria, small pox etc. was
spearheaded by it. Further it has taken up the programme of combating diseases by providing nutritious food. It also spreads knowledge on hygiene. The greatest achievement of this organisation is the total elimination of small pox from the world. The organisation has started a battle against population explosion and protection of environment and maintenance of ecological balance.

3. THE UNESCO : The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation is one of the important organs of the U.N.O. Its purpose is to promote collaboration among nations in the field of education, science and culture. Its headquarters is located in Paris. This organisation was established on 4th November 1946.
Its aims are :
(1) Establishment of peace,
(2) Promotion of human rights,
(3)Man is the center of development,
(4) Utilization of science and technology only for the improvement of human life,
(5) Promotion of education,
(6) Trying to strike a balance between human beings and environment, (7) Educating the masses against growth of population,
(8) Promotion of information technology,
(9) Encouraging creative mental and cultural environment to promote peace and prosperity of the world.
In 2001, there were 158 nations as its members. It is also striving to protect sites and centres of historical and cultural importance. India, is also a founder member of this organisation. India has hosted a number of its conference and extended its full support by observing the International Year of Education, International Year of Children, International Year of Women etc. India, with the cooperation
of the UNESCO has undertaken a number of projects like N.C.E.R.T.,
N.H.E.E.S (aimed at providing nutritious food, promoting health, education, environment and sanitation), DACEV meant for promoting pre-primary education etc. The UNESCO thus is trying its best to promote science and technology and culture.

4. I.L.O. : The International Labour Organisation was established with an aim to promote the welfare of working classes. Its headquarters is at Geneva in Switzerland. The administration is carried by an administrative council constituting representatives of workers and employers. Every nation sends two representatives one from the workers and the other from the management. The important work of this organisation is
* to provide social security to the workers and to improve their living standard.
* To assure minimum wages to workers, maternity benefits to female workers, nutritious food, shelter and entertainment to all the working classes. It provides opportunity to the workers to participate in the management. However, all these decisions are only advisory in nature and not binding on member nations.

5. U.N.I.C.E.F. :
The United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund is an unique organ
of United Nations, as it is striving to improve the living conditions of women and children in the developing nations. It was established in 1946. It came into existence to help the displaced children after the Second World War. Later, its functions were extended to the welfare of children of developing nations during the 1950s. However, it became a permanent organisation in 1957 and is carrying on its functions. It consists of 30 members, appointed by the UNESCO. The administrative office is in New York. It has provided aid for more than 116 nations and won Nobel Prize for peace in 1965 for its good work. UNICEF greeting cards are sold and the money so collected is used for the welfare of children. Hence the card must be purchased by every one to help the cause of children’s welfare. This organisation helps to provide milk and mid-day meal to the children of developing nations. It provides help to ladies during their pregnancy period. Prevention of immoral trafficking of children is also its aim. As it is carrying humanitarian service it has become very popular in the world.

6. THE I.M.F. :
International Monetary Fund was established in 1945. However, it
started functioning only in 1947. Its headquarters is in Washington D.C. Its aims are as follows:
(1) To advise on matters of International Economic problems.
(2) Maintain balance in World Trade so that employment opportunities are provided in all the nations.
(3) To maintain stability in exchange rate in various currencies.
(4) To promote world Trade so that all nations of the world may progress by increasing the income, and
(5) To promote the economic stability of all nations through economic
co-operation.

7. THE I.B.R.D. :
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or the World Bank came into existence in 1947. More than 175 nations are its members. Its headquarters is in Washington D.C. The IBRD was mainly established to reconstruct the countries subjected to damages during the Second World War. But, today it is helping all the nations in the field of agriculture, transport, etc., by providing loans.
Its aims are:
(1) To promote progress and development through economic reconstruction.
(2) To maintain a balance in international trade by providing capital.
(3) To provide financial help to various development projects of nations. (4) To provide guarantee to certain private industries in a selected manner for the loans they borrow, and
5) To provide long-term loans to its member states for their larger development. This organisation has become a ray of hope to the developing nations.

8.THE U.N.C.T.A.D. :
The United Nations Trade and Commerce Development works for the economic development of developing nations. It promotes trade and commerce. Its other programmes are:
(1) To review the policies of commerce.
(2) To discuss various inter-state problems between the governments of the world.
(3) To reach consensus among nations through discussions and conferences.
(4) To provide technological cooperation.
(5) To supervise the management of the existing programmes of development.
The meeting of the UNCTAD is convinced twice a year. It is instrumental in promoting social and economic reconstruction.

9. THE W.T.O. :
World Trade Organisation, a conference to study the Trade and Commerce in the world was held in Urugay on 15 December 1993 and it supported the idea of constituting World Trade Organisation. On the basis of its recommendation W.T.O. was established on 1st January 1995. This is a statutory body and about 140 nations are members. They have signed an agreement GATT (General Agreement of Trade and Tariff) in Geneva. So this is an international body which helps to settle any dispute concerning trade and commerce between the various nations of the world. The main aim of this is to cooperate with the World Bank, in shaping an economic policy. Through such policies, it is aimed to achieve progress in the field of trade and commerce. But the decision for free trade among nations has caused distress to developing nations.

ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS
The major objectives of the U.N.O. is to maintain peace in the world. The
United Nations was helpful in avoiding several wars. It has successfully reduced tension in nearly 300 critical situations. It prevented large scale war in the following cases:

1. War between Iran and Soviet Russia during 1946.
2. In 1947, it helped to solve a problem arising in Indonesia and also
prevented the chances of Civil war in Greece.
3. The Arab invasion on Israel in 1948 was prevented by ordering of ceasefire. However the conflict is still alive.
4. It solved Korean problems by giving independence to South Korea.
5. In 1956, it solved the Suez Canal Crisis.
6. It is only because of U.N.O. that the Vietnam crisis came to an end.
7. The Congo problem was solved during 1960.
8. Though a cease-fire was ordered in the case of Kashmir in 1948, the
conflict is still alive.
9. It freed Kuwait from Iraqi invasion during 1991.
10. Namibia and Angola got independence by the efforts of the UNO.
However, U.N.O. has also met with failures in certain cases. E.g.: The problem between Hungary and Poland in 1956. Similar is the conflict between Israel and Palestine. The possibility of the Third World War was prevented by the efforts of the U.N.O. It is a most notable achievement. Through its organs like I.L.O., W.H.O., UNICEF it has rendered yeoman service in international co-operation and development.

INDIA AND THE UNITED NATIONS
India is wedded to the principles of the U.N.O. as it is a member from the day of its inception. India has always looked upon the U.N.O. as a leading light in matters of establishing peace in the world. India always played a leading role in the U.N.O. in opposing the colonial rule and supporting the cause of newly born nations. India played a significant role in many of the peace keeping operations of the U.N.O. India has always demonstrated her faith in solving the problems through peaceful means. It has always believed in coexistence, which is the foundation stone of India’s foreign policy. It has always strongly urged the peaceful settlement of international disputes.


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