Feb 10, 2011

India's Foreign Policy

After the Second World War, India attained independence in 1947. After the World War the world was divided into two opposite power blocs headed by the former Soviet Union and the United States of America. The rivalry among these nations created an atmosphere of tension, fear and mutual distrust and suspicion. Therefore, India decided to adopt the policy of non-alignment. By this India was not a party to any political and military bloc and to take an independent stand on world issues.

The architect of this foreign policy of India was the late Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. He was a Gandhian and a humanitarian. He based the foreign policy of cooperation through which peace could be established in the entire war-torn world. e decided to maintain friendly relationship with all the nations of the world. Nehru was of the opinion that to reduce tension and conflict in the world peaceful coexistence was an alternative. Five principles, known as ‘Panchasheela’ were formulated on April 29, 1954 as part of India-China agreement. They are:
(1) Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignty. (2) Mutual non-aggression.
(3) Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
(4) Belief in equality and working for mutual benefit, and
(5) Peaceful co-existence.

India has a rich heritage of peace, friendship and co-operation. We have
numerous examples to show this from our past history. On no occasions India has sent her troops to conquer other countries but it has sent messengers to spread ethics and culture. After independence, India has adopted friendly relations with her neighbours, it is a member of the Commonwealth, the SAARC and the ASEAN. INDIA AND U.S.A.: The United States and India are the two major democratic nations in the world. Further, America had pleaded for the cause of independence
of India during her struggle. It was the then president of America, Franklin Roosevelt who supported the cause of Indian independence. When there was a clash between China and India, America had helped India. The United States of America has extended economic help to India for her development. But when America entered a defence alliance with Pakistan, the relationship was somewhat strained. Apart from this there are a number of reasons which led to differences of opinion which led to troubled relationship between the two big democracies of the world. However, during the regime of President Kennedy, matters improved. But this trend was not continued by the future Presidents. Later in 1978, during Jimmy Carter’s regime the relationship improved; but even that did not last long. In recent past, that too after the visit of Clinton, the economic sanctions against India were removed.

The relationship between the Soviet Union and India has a long history. No doubt after attaining independence in 1947, India had opposed policies of colonialism and imperialism. This attitude of India welded the bond of friendship between the former Soviet Union and India, which is continuing even today. After the Second World War, India followed the policy of non-alignment, which was not liked by the United States; however Russia continued her alliance with India. More than this the Soviet Union supported India on all international issues including on Kashmir. During the Liberation of Goa in 1961 and the war against China during 1962, Soviet Union supported India. The Soviet Union, mediated Tashkent Agreement in 1966 between India and Pakistan. Twenty year pact was concluded between India and Soviet Union in 1971. The Soviet Union aided the establishment of Steel Plants in Bhilai and Bokaro and Aunge Power Plant in Haridwar. In 1985, Rajiv Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India, paid a visit to Russia and signed a treaty of economic and technological co-operation. Under this treaty India received a long term loan of Rs. 2,883 crores in 1986. Through all these,
Indo-Russian friendship and cultural relations have strengthened. One happy feature is that even after the break-up of the former USSR, the friendship between Russia and India is continuing. Besides, Kashmir, Russia is supporting India for securing a permanent membership in the Security Council.

Over centuries China and India have lived as friendly neighbours. This relationship is quite long, belonging back to the days of Lord Buddha. But India’s policy towards Tibet changed Chinese attitude towards India.
During 1950, Chinese attacked Tibet and forced the Tibetan King to sign a treaty. However, India opposed this as it has always supported the autonomy of Tibet. Further, a treaty was concluded between India and China in 1955. Taking undue advantage of this treaty, China occupied Tibet in 1989. After the Chinese aggression of Tibet, Tibetan religious head Dalai Lama took shelter in India. This enraged China and it attacked India which led to India-China war in 1962. Illegally China has
occupied nearly 12,000 square miles of territory belonging to India.
India, has expressed her friendship even after such brutal attack on her
territories. China has occupied the Akashichin area belonging to Kashmir. It was due to India’s pleading that China had secured its place in U.N.O. However, in recent past i.e. from 1976, relationships are improving. China has reappointed its ambassador to India.

Bangladesh was known as East Pakistan. In 1971, the struggle ended and Bangladesh became independent country. India had helped the people of Bangladesh in their struggle for freedom against Pakistan. Since 1971, there have been political, economic and cultural co-operation between India and Pakistan. During 1974, both the Prime Ministers of Bangladesh and India met in Dhaka and concluded a treaty for twenty years of peace, cooperation and friendly relations. It was because of this treaty the long pending problems of Farakka Barrage was solved. However, the problem of migrants from the Chittagong Hilly area, smuggling along the borders etc. are yet to be solved. Lakhs of Bangladeshi citizens have illegally entered and settled down in India. Bangladesh is also sheltering many anti-India terrorist outfits.

Nepal is a Kingdom in the ranges of the Himalayas. India has traditional and friendly relations with Nepal. The border between these two countries are always open to trade. Commerce and transport take place without any restrictions. Nepal, being a land locked country, depends on India for her trade with other countries. According to the treaty of 1971, the products of Nepal are exempted from tariff. Though India has given all help, Nepal ill-treated Indians in Nepal. The recent terrorist activities in Nepal have caused concern for India. SAARC headquarters is located in Nepal’s capital city of Khatmandu. The recent killings of the members of the Royal family and Moaist movement have created problems in Nepal. However, India has stood by Nepal on all occasions of its national crisis.

India’s links with Sri Lanka are rooted deep in history and mythology from the days of Ramayana. Sri Lanka is predominantly a Buddhist country and cordial relationship between the two countries are continuing. There are two prominent groups in Sri Lanka, one the Sinhalese and the other the Tamils. Both these groups trace their origin to India. However in the recent past, there is a conflict between them. The Sri Lankans are mostly Buddhists. The Tamil-speakers consider themselves as belonging to Dravidian race. The claim of the Tamils of Sri
Lanka for a separate state has led to a civil war. The escalation of violence and large scale killings have caused concern to India. Being our next neighbour, India has helped Sri Lanka in many ways. An accord was signed over an island in the Palk Straight during 1974-76. There is also a treaty over sea trade between the two countries. During 1988, a treaty was concluded between Jayawardhane and Rajiv Gandhi and a Peace Keeping Force was despatched. However, later this had to be withdrawn. India had maintained good relationship with Tamil group called L.T.T.E. But the terrorists belonging to this outfit caused violence in India and ultimately assassinated Rajiv Gandhi.

The division of India is an unfortunate development. Historically, geographically, culturally and economically the two countries have much in common. Since its inception in 1947, Pakistan, has been raising disputes over issues like property, border, distribution of river water etc. Kashmir issue has become a bone of contention between the two countries, which led to wars more than once. There are other reasons like Pakistan’s treaty with other countries like China, military agreements, cross border terrorism, trade, water dispute, continuing problem of minorities in both the coutries. Three wars have been fought becasue of Kashmir. Eventhough Kashmir is an inseperable part of India, Pakistan has continued its wrong claim on Kashmir. Except Kashmir, there are no other serious problems between the two countries. However, India is trying her best to pursue the policy of good neighbourliness with Pakistan. If there are any differences including Kashmir it can be sorted out through negotiations.


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    1. conclusion is all about wat u learnt from da project...in other words wat u concluded from da project

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